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Alfaswitch

26. Apr 2010 00:05, Joggy

Robert Ardrey I ‘The Social Contract: A Personal Inquiry into the Evolutionary Sources of Order and Disorder’:

“Wynne-Edwards, with a penetrating stroke of logic,, once wrote that a “hereditary compulsion to comply” must be the real key to social organization. Could none be stratified with less than alpha, then society would become impossible. But his logic proceeded: Any such innate compulsion cannot come about by direct inheritance. Since in most animal groups the alphas, through the privilege of rank, have not only greater access to females but generate in the female more insistent sexual desire, then the alphas, through generation, must leave descendant out of proportion to their number. If inheritance proceeded directly, then the capacity for subordination would soon be bred out of a species. But observation reveals no such tendency. “

På sin vis kan der siges at eksisterer en slags alfaswitch, der får et individ til at tilpasse de lokale styrkeforhold ved enten at være selvsikker og aggressive eller usikker og tilbageholden.  En depression kan ses i dette lys: Hvis en status pludselig falder, skal man tilpasse sig en lavere plads i hierarkiet, bl.a. ved at have et usikkert kropssprog, være uambitiøs og generelt tilbageholden.  Blot ved et sikkert kropssprog, sikker stemmeføring og målrettethed kan man signalere højere status, selv over for en person med betydeligt større fysisk styrke. Noget forskning tyder på at IQ og visse evner bliver dårligere, hvis personen føler sig mindreværdig når testen tages. Dette giver også mening ud fra ideen om en alfaswitch: Hvis switchen er slået fra, giver det mening at spille dårligere end man er for ikke at udfordre den overlegne alfa.

Mange dyr har direkte fysiske indikatorer på høj status. Løvhyttefuglen bliver blå, gorillaer får sølvpels osv. Dette er som Dawkins ”grønne skæg”: Fuldstændigt vilkårligt. Men det kan ikke efterlignes, for der kan kun være en alfahan, så hvis et svagt individ påtager sig indikatoren, er det et klart tegn på at han udfordre den siddende alfahan (”denne by er ikke stor nok til at os begge”). Kampe til døden vil derfor være en naturlig følge (eller til testikelafbidning, som det ofte sker blandt aber).

Alfaswitchen gælder ikke bare generelt for en person, men også i særlige omstændigheder. Status er lokalt, så vi skal også slå alfasswitchen til at fra afhængigt af det lokale omstændigheder. Blandt små søskende eller andre børn, kan en ellers usikker person udvise dominerende adfærd og kropssprog, som han ellers aldrig ville blandt jævnaldrene.

Den blot og bar forventning om at en given person er ’alfa’ gør ham til alfa. I en konflikt mellem to gorillaer vil andre gorillaer støtte op om den med sølv manken – hvis ikke af anden grund, så blot fordi de forventer, at andre vil gøre det samme. Ligeledes vil der være en klar forventning, om at alfahannen vil have større udholdenhed i en konflikt, og alene af den grund vil konkurrerende hanner være tilbøjelige til at acceptere sit nederlag. Det gælder ikke bare i fysiske konflikter, men i enhver beslutningssituation, hvor koalitionsdannelse er nødvendig. Hvis tre mand spørger ”hvor skal vi gå hen og spise,” vil forventningen om, at en bestemt person har højere status betyde, at hans beslutning vil blive fuldt – begge under ham, vil forvente, at den anden vil være enig med ’alfaen’.

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Mit navn er Jonas Reschat. Jeg er 20 år gammel og studere økonomi på KU. Email: jonas(at)reschat.dk

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